Preliminary draft release. Additional documentation is forthcoming


The catalogue presents archaeological evidence for ancient Greek-Iranian encounters in Iran collected by the project. In the present trial version, it contains 25 items (edifices and architectural elements, inscriptions on stone, metal and pottery, works of sculpture and coins) coming from 18 different locations in Iran and spanning the four major historical periods under study. Additional documentation is forthcoming.

The archaeological vestiges considered are each treated in a separate record and are classified under their respective places of discovery or acquisition. Access to the various records is provided by a gazetteer of the relevant ancient and modern places, as well as by a comprehensive synopsis of the documentation on display.

The record for each vestige comprises references to the circumstances of discovery and place of conservation, illustration(s) and description of the physical object, a commentary focusing on its significance with respect to the theme of the project, and a bibliography. The presentation is enhanced with links to online publications of relevant ancient texts, images and scholarly discussions.

Complementary information about the local Iranian contexts from which the various vestiges were recovered is provided by the place entries in the gazetteer. These feature, in addition to a location map and cartographic and toponymic references, venues for a gallery with site photographs and plans, a bibliography of excavation reports and studies, as well as references and links to archaeological documentaries, exhibitions of archaeological materials and further cultural content of interest for this project.

To facilitate consultation, locales of the same place that are commonly referred to by distinct names in the modern literature appear in the gazetteer both under the main place of reference and as separate entries.


Dedication to Heracles Callinicus

Dedication to Heracles Callinicus for the well-being of the governor (or commander) of the Upper Satrapies, Cleomenes. Mt. Bīsotūn, Kermānšāh province, Iran. 148 BC. Excavations of A. Hakemi (Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, ICHTO), 1960. H. 1.90 m (inscribed stele: H. 0.46 m, W. 0.34 ... Read more

Dā o Doḵtar
Rock-cut tomb

Rock-cut funerary monument. Dā o Doḵtar (lit. 'Mother and Daughter'), Fārs province, Iran. Hellenistic (330 - ca. 150 BC) or Parthian (ca. 150 BC - AD 224) period. Facade: H. 5.50 m, L. 5.80 m. ... Read more

Marble colonnette with relief gorgons and lions

Archaic Greek marble colonnette. Eṣṭaḵr, Fārs province, Iran. Sixth or early fifth century BC. Excavations of E. F. Schmidt (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago), 1935. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. H. 0.114 m, W. 0.074 m. ... Read more

Hamadān (Ecbatana)
Stone lion

Stone statue of a lion. Hamadān (anc. Ecbatana), Hamadān province, Iran. Late fourth century BC? L. ca. 3.40 m, D. (head) ca. 1 m. ... Read more

Iḏeh (Malāmir)
Female torso of Mediterranean (?) marble

Headless upper female torso of white (eastern Mediterranean?) marble. Said to come from the Iḏeh (form. Malāmir) region (Baḵtīārī mountains), Ḵūzestān province, Iran. Second or first century BC. National Museum of Iran, no. 2592.  H. 0.328 m, W. 0.36 m, Th. 0.225 m. ... Read more

The so-called Temple of Artemis-Anāhitā

Remains of the so-called Temple of Artemis-Anāhitā. Kangāvar, Kermānšāh province, Iran. Sasanian period (AD 224-651). Excavations and restorations by the Iranian Department of Archaeology/Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, ICHTO: M. S. Kāmbaḵš-e Fard, 1968-1975; M. Azarnoush, 1977-1978 ... Read more

Greek apotropaic inscription

Greek apotropaic inscription. Karaftō Caves, Kordestān province, Iran. Late fourth or first half of third century BC. Inscribed surface: H. ca. 0.20 m, L. ca. 1 m. ... Read more

Building with Ionic type columns

Building with Ionic type columns. Ḵūrha, Markazī province, Iran. Parthian period (ca. 150 BC - AD 224). Excavations of A. Hakemi (Iranian Department of Archaeology), 1956, and M. Rahbar (Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, ICHTO), 1977 and 1996- . L. ca. 50 m, W. ca. 33.50 m. ... Read more


Milestone inscribed in Greek. Vicinity of Marvdašt, Fārs province, Iran. Late fourth or early third century BC. Found by A. Kabiri (Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization), 1978. Persepolis Museum, no. 3410. H. 0.46 m, W. 0.28 m, Th. 0.25 m. ... Read more

Nahāvand (Laodicea)
Edict of Antiochus III

Inscribed limestone stele recording an edict of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III (223-187 BC). 193 BC. Nahāvand (anc. Laodicea), Hamadān province, Iran. Chance find, 1943-1944 or 1945-1946. National Museum of Iran, BK 3992. H. 1.19 m (inscribed field: H. 0.85 m, W. 0.46-0.48 m). ... Read more

Ionic capital

Ionic capital. Nahāvand (anc. Laodicea), Hamadān province, Iran. Hellenistic period (330-ca. 150 BC). Excavations of M. Rahbar (Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, ICHTO), 2005. Ḥammām-e Ḥāǰǰ Āqā Torāb Museum. H. 0.265 m, W. 0.735 m. ... Read more

Pārseh (Persepolis)
'Frātarakā Temple'
Limestone plaques inscribed with names of Greek divinities

Five grey limestone plaques inscribed, respectively, with the names of Zeus Megistos, Apollo, Helios, Artemis, Athena Basileia. 'Frātarakā (or Frātadarā) Temple'. Pārseh (Persepolis), Fārs province, Iran. Late fourth or beginning of third century BC. Excavations of E. Herzfeld (Oriental ... Read more

Taḵt-e Jamšid (Persepolis terrace)
DPe inscription of Darius I

Old Persian inscription (DPe) of the Achaemenid monarch Darius I (522-486 BC) on the southern wall of the Persepolis terrace. Pārseh (Persepolis), Fārs province, Iran. Ca. 500 BC. ... Read more

Relief fragment with Greek graffiti

Greek graffiti on a fragment of a shoe from a relief representation of the Achaemenid ruler Darius I. Palace of Darius I (Tačara), Taḵt-e Jamšid (lit. "Throne of Jamšid"). Pārseh (Persepolis), Fārs province, Iran. Ca. 510-500 BC. Found by E. Herzfeld, 1923. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers ... Read more

Stone panel with scene of contest between Heracles and Apollo

Seven fragments of a limestone panel decorated with a scene of contest between Heracles and Apollo. 'Treasury' building, Taḵt-e Jamšid (lit. 'Throne of Jamšid'). Pārseh (Persepolis), Fārs province, Iran. Ca. 500 BC. Excavations of E. F. Schmidt (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago), ... Read more

The Apadāna coins

A find of 13 coins compising gold 'Croeseids' and archaic silver issues of Abdera, Aegina and Cypriot cities. Apadāna foundation deposits, Taḵt-e Jamšid (lit. 'Throne of Jamšid'). Pārseh (Persepolis), Fārs province, Iran. Reign of Darius I (522-486 BC). Excavations of E. Herzfeld (Oriental ... Read more

Pasārgād (Pasargadae)
Taḵt-e mādar-e Soleymān

Milestone inscribed in Greek and Aramaic. Taḵt-e mādar-e Soleymān (lit. 'Throne of the mother of Solomon') or Tall-e Taḵt (lit. 'Throne hill'). Pasārgād (Pasargadae), Fārs province, Iran. Last quarter of the fourth or early third century BC. Excavations of D. Stronach (British Institute of ... Read more

Qal‘a ye Yazdegerd
Stucco decoration with western motifs

Western motifs in Parthian architectural gypsum stucco decoration. Pavilion at Qaḷʿa-ye Yazdegerd (Sector Gach Gumbad), Kermānšāh province, Iran. Late second or third century AD. Excavations of E. J. Keall, 1965 (British Institute of Persian Studies) and 1975-1979 (Royal Ontario Museum). ... Read more

Limestone column base or pedestal

Column base or pedestal of milky-white limestone. Rīšahr (Persian Gulf coast), Būšehr province, Iran. Hellenistic or Parthian period (ca. 330 BC - AD 224)? Chance find, 2003. Bušehr Museum. H. 0.50 m, W. 0.57 m, Th. 0.57 m. ... Read more

Small marble head (Aphrodite? Artemis?)

Head of female statue in white marble (Aphrodite? Artemis?). Šāmī shrine (Baḵtīārī mountains), Ḵūzestān province, Iran. Third or second century BC. Chance find, reportedly of 1935.  National Museum of Iran, no. 2216. H. 0.15 m. ... Read more

Šuš (Susa)
Female head by the sculptor Antiochus

Female head of white marble by the sculptor Antiochus. Mound of the  'Ville Royale' (Area 'Isthme'). Šuš (Susa), Ḵūzestān province, Iran. Ca. 100 BC - ca. AD 45. Excavations of R. de Mecquenem (Mission archéologique de Susiane), 1939. National Museum of Iran, no. 2452. H. 0.375 m, W. 0.24 m. ... Read more

Inscribed bronze weight in the form of a knucklebone

Bronze weight in the form of a knucklebone with Ionic dedication to Apollo. Mound of the Acropolis. Šuš (Susa), Ḵūzestān province, Iran. Sixth century BC. Excavations of J. de Morgan (Mission de la Délégation en Perse), 1901. Louvre, Sb 2719. H. 0.275 m, W. 0.39 m, Th. 0.245 m, Wt. 93.7 kg. ... Read more

Stamped handle of Rhodian amphora

Ηandle of Rhodian commercial amphora bearing the stamp of Aristion. Mound of the Apadāna. Šuš (Susa), Khūzestān province, Iran. 198-190+ BC. Excavations of R. Ghirshman (Délégation archéologique en Iran), 1965. Place of conservation and dimensions unknown. ... Read more

Tal-e Ḵandaq
Small statue of 'Marsyas'

Small, fragmentary statue of 'Marsyas'. Vicinity of Tal-e Ḵandaq, Būšehr province, Iran. Roman Imperial period. Illicit excavation, 1992. Būšehr Office of the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization. Preserved H. 0.275 m (base: H. 0.043 m, L. 0.52 m, W. 0.295 m). ... Read more

Tall-e Żaḥḥāk
Small marble head (Aphrodite?)

Small female head of (Parian?) marble. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk (Fasā), Fārs province, Iran. Third or second century BC. Chance find, in or before 1934. National Museum of Iran, no. 2089. H. 0.11 m. ... Read more